All about Reading Comprehension Skills | English

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  • Last Updated on 30 September, 2023

reading comprehension

Table of Contents:

1. Introduction

2. Comprehension Passages

2.1 Why are reading comprehension skills important?

3. Levels of Comprehension

3.1 Literal Level

3.2 Inferential Level

3.3 Evaluative Level

3.4 Applied/Appreciative Level

4. Let’s Summarize Four Levels of Comprehension

5. Reading Comprehension Passage Types (Based on Text Writing Style)

5.1 Factual/Expository/Informative Style

5.2 Literary Style

5.3 Narrative Style

5.4 Descriptive Style

5.5 Argumentative/Persuasive Style

5.6 Analytical Style

5.7 Abstract Style

6. Reading Comprehension Question Types

6.1 Big Picture Questions

6.2 Specific Purpose Questions

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1. Introduction

Meaning : According to Oxford Dictionary of English

Comprehension : is a noun which means

    1. Formal – the ability to understand
    2. an exercise that tests how well you understand spoken or written language.

2. Comprehension Passages

The Reading Comprehension passages have academic content and style and include topics from a variety of fields including arts, sciences, social sciences, etc. It is the art of reading, understanding, and remembering what you read in any given piece of writing.

According to Wren and Martin, “a comprehension exercise can be defined as a passage upon which questions are set to test the students’ ability to understand the content of the given text and to infer information and meanings from it”. To put it in simple terms, reading comprehension is the act of understanding what you are reading.

As a part of reading comprehension passages, you need to very carefully go through a given passage, understand its meaning, notice the meaning of various contexts in which the sentences appear. You will then have to answer different questions that are based on the passage you read. If you are wondering how to understand comprehension passages, then here are some points.

    • Comprehension tests your vocabulary, so building a good vocabulary is important to understand passages.
    • You also need to have a good sense of the language in which the comprehension is written.
    • You need to develop the ability to identify meanings of phrases or words by reading the passage multiple times.

Reading comprehension passages assesses your intelligence in grasping the gist of the written text and infer your conclusions based on the context. Most of the questions in comprehension are directly related to the passage. A few of them will need you to find the contextual meaning of different words, and some of them will test your ability to find suitable vocabulary around them like antonyms, synonyms etc. of given words.

The main object of reading comprehension is to test one’s ability to grasp the meaning of a given passage properly and also one’s ability to answer a variety of questions like Multiple choice questions, short answer type questions, completion of incomplete sentences, filling the blanks with appropriate words and exercises based on vocabulary can also be set forth for the purpose.

In NTA CUET Reading Comprehension includes a passage followed by a set of 5-6 Multiple choice questions (MCQ’s) are asked based on written Text. Candidates have to answer questions on the basis of information given in the passage and not on the basis of their prior knowledge.

2.1 Why are reading comprehension skills important?

Reading comprehension is important for several reasons and can provide many benefits. Being able to effectively read can improve both your personal and professional life and can increase your overall enjoyment of reading. Knowing how to understand a text can help boost your knowledge in certain areas and help you learn new skills and information faster.

Additional benefits of good reading comprehension skills include:

    • Being able to understand, analyse and respond to documents and written communication in the workplace.
    • Improved your ability to write clearly and effectively.
    • The ability to comprehend and engage in current events that are in written form such as newspapers.
    • Increased ability to focus on reading for an extended period.
    • Better enjoyment of and motivation to read.

3. Levels of Comprehension

There are four different Levels of Comprehension you may experience with learning.

3.1 Literal Level

When you comprehend at this level you can recall/repeat what the text says: the things that are actually stated in the text. Readers can identify and/or recall relevant information explicitly stated in the reading selection by:

    • identifying a statement or sentence that best indicates the main idea of the selection
    • identifying directly-stated facts (e.g., important research data)
    • identifying details such as key words, phrases or sentences that explicitly state important information
    • identifying directly-stated opinions

3.2 Inferential Level

At this level you can explain what the text means: the meaning is drawn from the literally stated ideas. If the text says that Ram got into his new sports car, we can infer that Ram likes to be sporty and has money to spend on a car.

Readers use information stated in the text as clues to determine what is not stated, but implied. Readers derive meaning by

    • identifying implicit relationships (relationships not directly stated) such as cause and effect, sequence-time relationships, comparisons, classifications and generalizations
    • predicting probable future outcomes or actions
    • inferring an author’s unstated meaning by drawing conclusions based on specific facts, events, images, patterns or symbols found in selected readings
    • inferring the main idea of a selection when it is not explicitly stated
    • identifying unstated reasons for actions or beliefs based on explicitly stated information (clues)

3.3 Evaluative Level

At this level you are understanding ideas and/or information well enough to analyze, judge and critique information and ideas. You are also able to explain and support your judgment clearly.

At this level, you are able to justify a stance. You can set standards, rate, test, select and choose, decide, weigh according to, and etc. You can also…

    • judge whether the information used by the author to support a conclusion is accurate and/or credible and explain why you believe this is so
    • evaluate between conclusions that are based on facts and those that are based on opinions and prove why you believe this is so
    • decide on a stance on issues and situations and argue/prove/justify why your stance is correct

Example of a question to lead you to evaluate: Who was to blame for Chota Chetan’s troubles? Why do you think so?

3.4 Applied/Appreciative Level

You are able to comprehend author’s point of view, purpose, tone, and etc. based on clues in the text. This could be applied to determine author’s purpose, message and etc. for whole text or parts of texts, like a statement, quotes, reasons, examples, scenarios author may have included.

At this level, readers are able to reach conclusions about:

    • the author’s motivation or purpose for writing a passage based on evidence in the selection
    • the author’s hidden values and assumptions based on evidence/clues in the text
    • why the author included certain statements, quotes, reasons based on evidence in the text (what the hidden message is behind these)
    • author’s tone based on evidence in the text

4. Let’s Summarize Four Levels of Comprehension

Using the reading strategies of inferring, re-reading and consulting a reference we will deepen our understanding of how to effectively comprehend texts.

Level 1 – Literal – Stated facts in the text: Data, specifics, dates, traits and settings

Level 2 – Inferential – Build on facts in the text: Predictions, sequence and settings

Level 3 – Evaluative – Judgment of text based on: Fact or opinion, validity, appropriateness, comparison, cause and effect

Level 4 – Appreciative or Applied– Response to a text based on: Author’s language, values, imagery, style and purpose

An example of the four levels of comprehension.

Tumbling Cities

Cities and towns are made up of buildings that are often closely packed together. There are few open spaces so when an earthquake happens, buildings will collapse onto each other. Any strong vibration through the ground will cause damage. In an earthquake zone, buildings need to be built so they can absorb a shock – so they can shake or move just a little on their foundations. If this is not the case, then the walls and roofs of buildings will quickly dislodge, crack and finally break up and fall. On May 12, 2008, an 8.0 magnitude earthquake hit the Eastern Sichuan province in China. The closest large city to the epicentre, 60km away was Dujiangyan. It suffered major damage. Thousands of its buildings collapsed, including schools and hospitals. Overall, nearly 70,000 lives were lost. Rescue efforts were hindered due to landslides caused by blocked roads. More damage was done by aftershocks, which continued for weeks after the earthquake.

5. Reading Comprehension Passage Types (Based on Text Writing Style)

As the name states, writing styles is the way a writer chooses to express himself/herself through a piece of writing. But what exactly would be a writing styles for Reading Comprehension (RC) passage? Well, RCs differ in the way they are written. And a passage is written according to its purpose, audience and context. But the question is why it is important to identify the writing style of a passage?

Well, the author intends to convey some ideas and opinions through his/her writing style. You will know the kind of questions to expect and how to answer them correctly with a specific approach to each passage written in a particular style. Knowing about different writing styles is critical to developing a better understanding of RC passages. But, how do you think the various writing styles differ from each other? It does depend on some factors like structure, choice of words, expression and complexity of language. Generally, RC passages present information in the following seven writing forms:

  1. Factual/Expository/Informative
  2. Literary
  3. Narrative
  4. Descriptive
  5. Argumentative/Persuasive
  6. Analytical
  7. Abstract

Now, let’s see how can you identify each writing style and devise your RC strategy accordingly.

5.1 Factual/Expository/Informative Style


The purpose of factual style of writing is to impart information to the reader in a logical and objective manner along with some facts and figures. Probably, such passages won’t really interest you if you are not in the habit of reading newspapers. News stories, instruction manuals, research papers and reports present information in a factual form.

While reading factual Style passages:

    • Facts and figures may tend to confuse you, so focus on the main points and purpose of the passage. Here also, you are advised to glance through the questions before reading the passage. This way, you will be able to make mental notes of the crucial information needed to answer the questions.
    • Most of the questions asked are direct and require you to identify the key points.

5.2 Literary Style


A literary text is a piece of writing, such as a book or poem, that has the purpose of telling a story or entertaining, as in a fictional novel. Its primary function as a text is usually aesthetic, but it may also contain political messages or beliefs. literary texts contrast with informational texts that have the purpose of providing information rather than entertainment. All literary genres of writing, such as story, poetry, Drama, etc., can be written to serve a wide variety of purposes. For example, literary text can be written to entertain, to inform, to amuse, to share knowledge, pass on culture, to advance culture, etc. Literature comes in many forms and sometimes these forms come with their own specific purposes.

While reading literary Style passages:

    • A good idea for such passages is to go through the questions before reading the passage. This will save time and help you spot the required answers easily since most of the questions asked from these passages are direct.
    • Do not get distracted by figurative language used in the passage. Instead, try to stay focused on understanding the contextual meaning and answer the vocabulary-based questions accordingly.

5.3 Narrative Style


Narrative style of writing is one of the easiest to identify since these passages are written in form of a story. The author intends to narrate some events or personal experiences through such passages. Novels, anecdotes, autobiographies, histories, etc. are mostly written in a narrative style. Any narrative passage requires you to imagine the scenes and setting and understand the characters to connect with the plot.

While reading Narrative Style passages:

    • Try to identify the main ideas conveyed in the beginning, middle and the last.
    • While reading the passage, try to extract the underlying message that the author wants to convey through the story.
    • Also, the tone of the author will help you understand the emotions he/she is going through while narrating the story. Both direct and indirect questions may be asked from these passages.

5.4 Descriptive Style


Descriptive passages intend to describe a place, person, thing or event in a great detail. Such passages generally include a lot of adjectives, adverbs and metaphors so as to paint a picture of that particular thing in the reader’s mind. Suppose you visit a popular tourist place, how will you explain the beauty of it? Here, you would need to adopt a descriptive style. Most of the tourist guides, journals, magazines and poetry are written in a descriptive way.

While reading Descriptive Style passages:

    • A good idea for such passages is to go through the questions before reading the passage. This will save time and help you spot the required answers easily since most of the questions asked from these passages are direct.
    • Do not get distracted by figurative language used in the passage. Instead, try to stay focused on understanding the contextual meaning and answer the vocabulary based questions accordingly.

5.5 Argumentative/Persuasive Style


The author writes in an argumentative way so as to convince the reader of some particular beliefs and opinions regarding a subject. In other words, such passages cite instances, justifications and facts to support a stand taken on the given topic. You must have come across advertisements that tend to influence you to buy some products or services. Well, most of the advertisements, reviews and complaint letters are written in a persuasive form.

While reading argumentative/persuasive style passages:

    • Understand the author’s point of view regarding the subject being discussed. This way you will also be able to comprehend the implicit information and answer ‘the author agrees/disagrees’ questions well.
    • This style of writing often uses continuity words like ‘in the same way, likewise, additionally,’ These serve as an indicator of the examples used by author to justify his/her stand.
    • The tone and organization of the passage also helps to answer the indirect or inferential questions.

5.6 Analytical Style


Unlike the argumentative form, the analytical style of writing presents arguments and examples for examining the topic from all angles. The difference between the two is the way a group discussion varies from a debate. Suppose you are asked to tell the pros and cons of a particular product or decision, how do you present it? Here comes the role of analytical form of writing. You will be required to present justifications in favour of as well as against the subject. Even the movie reviews usually adopt an analytical style of writing. Some of the newspaper editorials, technical reports and magazine articles portray the given subject in an analytical way.

While reading analytical style passages:

    • Identify the central theme of the passage and the ideas build-up around it.
    • In these passages, you will frequently come across contrast words like however, nonetheless, despite, but. Such words are used to present arguments and counterarguments on the given topic.
    • Focus on the relevant points and do not focus too much on minor details. You are likely to be asked inferential questions from such passages. So, try to formulate your opinion while reading the passage.
    • A good idea to master such passages would be to read about latest happenings and discuss it among your friends so as to analyse from various aspects.

5.7 Abstract Style


The last kind of writing is called abstract style. As the name says, the abstract style of writing is adopted in passages which deal with abstract topics like that of philosophy. An interesting example of this would be the fantasy books that we all have loved in our childhood days. Such passages do not state all the information explicitly. Abstract style of writing generally encompasses non-material concepts that may be represented in a symbolic way.

While reading abstract style passages:

    • Look for the tone and structure of the passage to figure out the author’s message in the passage.
    • Such passages may appear complex and demand a second reading to understand their essence and meaning.

Reading Comprehension Passage Types (Based On Content)

Reading Comprehensions (RCs) can be classified into five categories according to the particular areas of study to which they belong. These different passage types and the right strategy for each of them have been discussed below:

1. Social Science Passages: These passages are from historical, geographical and political arenas. Mostly, these passages are enjoyable to read and are not too dense.

      • A lot of inferential questions are asked from these passages to check your reading and comprehension abilities. Generally, the answer can be inferred by also reading the line before and after the one referred to.
      • Some of the questions are straightforward and you can spot the answers directly from the passage statements.
      • Get acquainted with these kinds of passages by reading editorials and articles from newspapers like The Hindu, magazines like Competition success Review (CSR), websites of environmental journals etc.

2. Business & Economics Passages: These are based on important economic theories and business events. You need to be aware of the basic language and concepts of business and economics.

      • Questions posed from these passages will be easy to answer since they are not too indirect, but the passage may appear complicated to you if you are completely unaware of business/economics terminology.
      • Work on your business knowledge and economics vocabulary to enhance your understanding of these passages. You are not expected to be an expert in this field but be aware of the fundamentals.
      • Enhance your knowledge with the help of newspapers like The Economic times and magazines like Business today, Business world etc.

3. Science-based Passages: These passages deal with subjects that belong to sciences- biology, chemistry, medicine, technology and mathematics. These passages present a lot of facts, and may appear boring.

      • Do not get confused by their technical jargon and focus on the main ideas being presented by the author of the passage.
      • Most of the time, questions asked from these types of passages are easy to understand and answer.
      • If you find such passages complex to follow, go through science-based columns of newspapers/websites of The Hindu, The Guardian, Washington Post and magazines like Discover, Safari, Scientific India etc. and international science journals.

4. Liberal Art Passages: These passages are related to philosophy, sociology and psychology. Generally, these passages are very dense and demand intense focus for comprehension.

      • The questions based on these passages focus on the overall picture, and check your overall understanding of the ideas presented.
      • You need to identify the underlying idea to answer the questions correctly. The contextual meaning plays a vital role here.
      • Considering the abstract language of these passages, it is recommended that you read articles from websites of Indian journal of arts, international journal of liberal arts etc.

5. Latest Political & Current Events-based Passages: These passages are the easiest to understand.

      • Though these passages appear simple yet they pose some tricky inferential questions. These passages can be accompanied by both direct/factual questions as well as indirect ones.
      • If you keep track of the current happenings of the world, you will be able to follow the author of the passage well.
      • While reading editorials of newspapers like The Hindu, understand the structure and the indirect conclusions of the passage. This will help you comprehend the RC passages in the exam easily and in a short time.

The passages may be from more than one area or may be given in combined form. Practice is the key to become a master in all types of passages. Read articles from varied topics and issues and practice different types of RCs regularly. Lastly, diverse reading will make you familiar with the above-mentioned types and also enhance your reading speed and comprehension abilities.

6. Reading Comprehension Question Types

Based on the comprehension questions from the past CUET (NTA) exam papers, we have identified by number of different question types. Generally, we can classify the different question types into two broad categories: big picture questions (based on the whole passage) and specific purpose questions (based on some specific element of the passage). These two categories along with their sub-categories are discussed as follows:

6.1 Big Picture Questions

These questions refer to the broad overview of the passage and check your overall understanding of the passage. These are mostly asked in the following forms:

6.1.1 Main Idea Question

This relates to the central idea/theme of the passage. E.g.

    • Which of the following most accurately states the main idea of the passage?
    • Which of the following best states the central idea of the passage?
    • The gist of the passage is:
    • Which of the following is the principal topic of the passage?
    • Summarize the passage in one line.

6.1.2 Primary Purpose Question (or Subject of the passage Question)

This refers to the most important and emphasised point of the passage. E.g.

    • The primary purpose of this passage is to:
    • The primary focus of this passage is on which of the following?
    • The main concern of the passage is to:
    • In the passage, the author is primarily interested in:
    • The passage is chiefly concerned with:

This question type can also be asked for a specific paragraph (e.g. The primary purpose of paragraph 3 is) instead of the whole passage.

6.1.3 Title Question

By title, we mean the heading that would be most suitable for the passage. The title should be built around the central idea of the passage. E.g.

    • The most apt title for the passage is:
    • Select the most suitable title for the passage from the following:

6.1.4 Structure & Organization Questions (Logical structure Questions)

Structure/Organization is the pattern that the author follows to convey his notions about the given subject. E.g.

    • Which of the following best describes the organization of the passage?
    • The structure of the passage can be outlined as:

The questions may also refer to a particular paragraph of the passage:

    • Which of the following best describes the organization of the first paragraph of the passage?
    • One function of the third paragraph is to:

6.1.5 Questions based on author’s tone

To better understand a passage, a reader should identify the author’s attitude, or tone. Evaluating tone gives readers a better understanding of the author’s argument and purpose for writing.

The author’s tone is closely associated with the writer’s purpose. The writer will use a certain voice to convey the main idea and purpose of a passage. That voice often reveals the author’s attitude toward the subject.

Eg. Compare the passages below:

Passage (i)

The treadmill began to whirl, and I gripped its handlebars as the belt started moving me backwards. All I could do now was run — or begrudgingly barrel forward — toward an outdated screen that showed me the terrain I was supposed to be running on. It was made of red squares stacked up, one on top of another: the higher stacks were supposed to be steep hills, and the lower ones, valleys. I tried to picture them as burning coals to see if that would make me speed up or at least feel like this exercise was somehow connected to nature — even one of its cruel parts.

How would you describe this author’s attitude towards the treadmill?

Passage (ii)

The treadmill began to whir, and my heart sped up faster than the belt could go. Instead of pressing “select” on my remote control to escape into a TV show, I had just selected “Power Run.” A sleek screen with a simple set of red lines showed me the terrain on which I was running. Those red lines looked like a pulse, and they got me to run farther and faster than I could ever run when I’m outside, worried about weather, cars, or other people. It may not have looked like I was going anywhere that night, but I had just broken out of a ten-year slump.

How would you describe this author’s attitude towards the treadmill?

In Passage (i), the author must have a negative view of running on a treadmill.

How do we know that?

Consider the specific details, comparisons and word choices the author uses.

Specific Details that the Author Chose to Include

“treadmill moving me backward” — Why did the author choose to mention that it moved him/her backward?


imagining that the red squares as burning coals — That does not sound pleasant.

Word Choice



“… run — or barrel forward” (emphasis added)

“… one of its cruel parts” (emphasis added)

> All of these verbs, adverbs, and adjectives have negative connotations.

Words to describe the author’s tone include sardonic, pessimistic, and critical.

In Passage (ii), the author must have a positive view of the experience.

How do we know that?

Consider the specific details, comparisons and word choices that the author uses.

Specific Details that the Author Chose to Include

I had just selected “Power Run.” — The phrase shows ambition and confidence if the outcome is positive.

“ I had just broken out of a ten-year slump.” — The author ends by explaining the positive impact this workout had on her life.


“heart sped up faster than the belt could” — intense!

“red lines looked like a pulse” — shows energy or liveliness

Word Choice

“farther and faster” — benefits of running inside

“sleek” — author’s positive opinion of the screen on the treadmill

> These adverbs and adjectives show a positive view of the subject’s progress and one of the treadmill’s main features.

Words to describe the author’s tone include exuberant, enthusiastic, and excited.

Other common descriptions of an author’s tone include adjectives like cynical, depressed, hopeful, wistful, sympathetic, cheerful, outraged, positive, angry, sarcastic, ironic, solemn, vindictive, and intense.

6.2 Specific Purpose Questions

These questions refer to some specific element of the passage and check your scanning skill of finding specific information from the passage. These are mostly asked in the following forms:

6.2.1 Fact-based/Specific Detail/Target Questions (Direct Questions)

These questions intend to ask you to identify the correct/incorrect facts. E.g.

    • According to the passage,….
    • The passage states that:
    • Which, out of the following, is true/false?
    • Which _____ has not been cited as ______?
    • According to the author, what is ______?
    • By a ______, the author means…….
    • “According to the passage, _______?
    • Which factor has not been cited _______?

6.2.2 Inference Question

Inferences are the indirect conclusions of the passage. They are not directly stated in the passage. E.g.

    • It can be inferred from the passage:
    • It cannot be inferred from the passage:
    • The passage uses ______ to imply that ______”
    • What can be inferred when the author states_____?”
    • The sentence, ‘_____’, implies that

This question type can also be constructed from a specific portion of the passage.

6.2.3 ‘Must be true’ Question

These refer to the direct and logical conclusions that follow from the passage. E.g.

      • According to the passage, which one of the must be true?
      • According to the passage, which one of the must be false?
      • According to the passage, which one of the following would the author agree with?
      • According to the passage, which one of the following would the author disagree with?

This question type can be constructed from a specific paragraph instead of the whole passage.

6.2.4 Paraphrase Question

These questions essentially ask you to explain the meaning of a particular statement in other words or in different words than that given in the passage. E.g.

    • The following extract, “……….”, can be paraphrased as:
    • “………” can be rewritten as:

Paraphrase refers to ‘Express the same message in different words/Rewording for the purpose of clarification’.

6.2.5 Vocabulary Question

These questions test your vocabulary- ask you the meaning of a word/phrase/synonym or the opposite of the word/antonym. The contextual meaning of the word holds more importance here. E.g.

    • Identify the meaning of the word, “…………”, in the given context.
    • In the passage, the phrase ______ refers to
    • In the sentence, _________, what is the meaning of ‘______’?

Let’s see the two types of vocabulary question

(i)  Vocabulary in Context

These questions are basically testing the students’ vocabulary. However, do not forget that many words have multiple meanings. Identify the correct usage of the words based on the way they are used in the passage (that’s why it’s called “in context”).


      1. Which word/phrase has the opposite meaning as…?
      2. Find the words that have similar meanings to the following words…

(ii) Applied Vocabulary

Different from the vocabulary in context questions, these questions are usually tougher as it requires the students to analyse and use their own words to describe a situation or characters accurately.


      1. How would you describe the atmosphere in the classroom when the teacher stepped in? (e.g. tense, relaxed)
      2. How would you describe Mr. August’s character in the passage? (e.g. serious, friendly)

6.2.6 Application Questions

Application questions ask you to take information and conclusions in the passage and extrapolate them to similar situations or ideas. The key to this question type is the ability to identify the crux of an argument and see how it relates to a similar situation.

Common Question Tasks

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