All about Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter | Physics

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  • Last Updated on 22 September, 2022

dual nature of radiation and matter

Table of Contents

1. A Quick Review

2. Einstein Photoelectric Relation

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1. A Quick Review

    • Energy of photon of frequency (n) or wavelength (l)

E = hv = Energy of photon of frequency (eV – A)

    • Momentum of photon P = Momentum of photon
    • Effective mass of photon Effective mass of photon

Note: Net mass of photon is zero

    • Intensity of light = Intensity of light
    • Radiation force

(1) Surface is perfectly reflecting

Fradiation = Surface is perfectly reflecting

(2) Surface is perfectly absorbing

Fradiation = Surface is perfectly absorbing

    • The phenomenon of ejection of electron due to absorption of photon of suitable frequency is known as photo electric effect. photoelectric effect
    • The minimum energy of photon require to just eject electron from metal surface is known as work function of metal.
    • The frequency of photon corresponding to work function of metal is known as threshold frequency.


    • v threshold = photo electric effect
    • The wavelength of photon corresponding to work function of metal is known as threshold wavelength.
    • y threshold = photo electric effect
    • In photoelectric effect one photon interact with only one electron.

2. Einstein Photoelectric Relation

    • Kinetic energy of ejected electron = Energy of photon – work function.

Einstein Photoelectric Relation

    • If we increase the frequency (or decrease the wavelength) of photon. The energy of photon will increase and hence energy of ejected electron will increase.
    • If we increase intensity of photon (i.e. No. of photon falling on unit area in unit time) then No. of ejected electron will increase and hence photo current will increase.
    • The magnitude of minimum potential to just stop the flow of photo current is known as cut-off potential. It depend on frequency or wavelength of incident photon.

Einstein Photoelectric Relation

    • If we increase the intensity of photon, saturation current will increase but cut-off potential (stopping potential) will remain same.

Einstein Photoelectric Relation

    • If we increase the frequency (decrease the wavelength of photon, cut-off potential (stopping potential) will increase but saturation current will remain same.
    • De-Broglie hypothesis of matter wave states that wave nature can also be associated with microscopic particle.
    • Wavelength of matter wave Wavelength of matter wave 
    • For Charged particle (E) = qV
    • For non-relativistic motion P = Potential for non-relativistic motion



h = plank constant plank constant
m = mass of particle
E = Kinetic energy of particle
q=charge on particle
V=potential difference across which charged particle is moved

    • For electron moved across V-volt potential electron moved across V-volt potential 
    • Davisson Germer experiment show wave particle duality.

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