FAQs on Computation of Gross Receipts/Turnover | Tax Audit | A.Y. 2021-22
- Account & Audit|Blog|Tax Audit Week|
- 998 Views
- 7 Min Read
- By Taxmann
- Last Updated on 31 May, 2022
FAQ 1. How to calculate the gross receipt or sales turnover for a tax audit?
Ans. Applicability of tax audit under section 44AB depends upon gross receipts, sales, or turnover of an assessee, so the first and foremost thing is their calculations.
1. Sales turnover
As per ‘Guidance Note on Terms Used in Financial Statement’ published by the ICAI, the meaning of the term’ sale turnover’ shall be aggregate of amount for which sales are affected by an enterprise. The terms gross turnover and net turnover are sometimes used to differentiate the turnover before and after deduction of returns and discounts.
An invoice may involve various extra and ancillary charges. Some of these charges may form part of the sale turnover whereas some may be excluded while determining the value of sales turnover. The treatment thereof is explained in the below table.
|Trade discount or turnover discount||To be excluded from sales turnover if discounts are allowed in the sales invoice|
|Cash discount||Not to be excluded from sales turnover|
|Rebates||To be excluded from sales turnover|
|Commission on sales||Not to be excluded from sales turnover|
|Sales return||To be excluded from sales turnover|
|Sale proceeds from the transfer of fixed assets||To be excluded from sales turnover|
|Sale proceeds from the transfer of securities held as stock-in-trade||Not to be excluded from sales turnover|
|Scrap||To be excluded from sales turnover unless assessee is engaged in the business of dealing in scrap.|
2. Gross receipt
The term ‘Gross Receipts’ is not defined in the Income-tax Act. The ‘Guidance Note on Tax Audit’ issued by ICAI provides that in the case of professionals, ‘Gross receipts’ includes all receipts arising from carrying on a profession. However, certain receipts may or may not be included in the gross receipts, which are as follows.
Following receipts shall be included in the gross receipts:
- Out of pocket expenses, recovered by way of consolidated fees, would form part of gross receipts.
- Cash assistance (by whatever name called) received or receivable by any person against exports under any scheme of Government.
- Any duty drawback is payable to any person against exports under specified schemes.
- The aggregate gross interest income received by a money lender, commission, brokerage, service, and other incidental charges received in the business of chit funds.
- Reimbursement of expenses incurred (i.e., packing, forwarding, freight, insurance, traveling, etc.). However, if the same is credited to a separate account in books, only net surplus on this account should be added to gross receipt or turnover.
- Hire charges of cold storage.
- Liquidated damages.
- Insurance claims except those which are linked with the fixed assets.
- Sale proceeds of scrap, wastage, etc., unless treated as part of sale turnover, whether or not credited to a miscellaneous income account.
- Lease rent in the business of operating lease.
- Finance income to reimburse and reward the lessor for his investment and services.
- Hire charges and installments received in the course of hire purchase.
- Advance received and forfeited from customers.
- The value of any benefit or perquisite, whether convertible into money or not, arising from business or exercise of a profession.
Following receipts shall be excluded from the gross receipts:
- Out of pocket expenses recovered separately from the client shall not form part of gross receipts.
- Where a professional received an advance for services which are yet to be rendered, it will not form part of the gross receipts till the services are rendered.
- Sale proceeds of fixed assets including advance forfeited if any.
- Sale proceeds of assets held as investments.
- Rental income unless the same is assessable as business income.
- Dividends on shares except in the case of an assessee dealing in shares.
- Income by way of interest unless assessable as business income.
- Reimbursement of customs duty and other charges collected by a clearing agent.
- The amount received by travel agents from clients for payment to airlines, railways etc. is excluded if received by way of reimbursement of expenses incurred on behalf of the client. If, however, the travel agent is conducting a package tour and charges a consolidated sum for transportation, boarding and lodging and other facilities, then the amount received from the members of the group tour should form part of gross receipts.
- Amount of advertising charges recovered by an advertising agent from his clients by way of reimbursement shall be excluded. However, if he books the advertisement space in bulk and recovers the charges from different clients, the amount recovered by him will form part of his gross receipts.
- Share of profit of a partner in the total income of the firm shall be excluded from the total income of the partner.
- Write back of amounts payable to creditors or provisions for expenses or taxes no longer required.
FAQ 2. How to calculate the sales turnover of the commission agent?
Ans. The turnover of a commission agent or a person selling goods on a consignment basis is determined based on the transfer of significant risk or reward of ownership. If the property in goods or all significant risks and rewards of ownership of goods continue to belong to the principal, the relevant sale price shall not form part of the turnover of the commission agent. In this case, the turnover shall be the amount of commission earned by the agent. However, if the property in the goods, significant risk, and reward of ownership belongs to the commission agent, the sale price received/receivable shall form part of his turnover.
ICDS-IV (Revenue Recognition) also provides that in the case of an agency relationship, the revenue of an agent shall be the amount of commission and not the gross inflow of cash, receivables or other consideration. The CBDT has also clarified that while determining the turnover in case of Kachha Arahtias, the turnover does not include the sales effected on behalf of the principals and only the gross commission has to be considered. However, in the case of Pucca Arahtias, the total sales/turnover of the business should be taken into consideration.
FAQ 3. How to calculate the sales turnover of share brokers?
Ans. When a share broker purchases securities on behalf of his customers, he does not get them transferred in his name but they are delivered in the name of the customer. The same is true in the case of sales also. The share broker holds the delivery merely on behalf of his customer. The property in securities does not get transferred to the share-brokers. Only brokerage, which is being accounted for in the books of account of share brokers, should be taken into account for calculating the value of turnover. However, in the case of transactions entered into by a share broker on his personal account, the sale value should be taken into account while calculating the sales turnover. The case of a sub-broker is not different from that of a share broker.
FAQ 4. How to calculate sales turnover in case of a speculative transaction?
Ans. A ‘speculative transaction’ means a transaction in which a contract for purchase or sale of any commodity or securities is periodically or ultimately settled otherwise than by the actual delivery or transfer of commodity or scrips. Thus, there can be both positive and negative differences in speculative transactions arising from the settlement of contracts. Whether a positive or negative difference, each transaction is an independent transaction. In such transactions, though the contract notes are issued for the full value of the purchased or sold asset, the entries in the books of account are made only for the differences. Accordingly, the aggregate of both positive and negative differences is considered the turnover.
For example, Mr X is engaged in speculative business. He derives the following profits or losses from securities:
|Securities||Amount of gain or (loss)|
While computing the turnover of Mr X, all the differences, whether positive or negative, shall be aggregated.
FAQ 5. How to calculate sales turnover in the case of derivatives?
Ans. The gains or losses arising from trading in F&O are always taxable under the head ‘Profits and Gains from Business or Profession’. The derivative transactions are completed without delivery of shares or securities, and they are squared up by the payment of differences. A derivatives transaction has all features which a speculative transaction has.
The Income-tax Act does not contain any provision or guidance for computation of turnover in F&O trading. However, the Guidance Note on Tax Audit issued by the ICAI prescribes the method of determining turnover, which shall be as under:
- The total of favourable and unfavourable differences is taken as turnover;
- Premium received on sale of options is also to be included in turnover;
- In respect of any reverse trades, the difference thereon should also form part of the turnover.
All the favourable or unfavourable differences are aggregated to calculate the turnover.
FAQ 6. How to calculate sales turnover in the case of multiple businesses?
Ans. Where an assessee carries on more than one business, sale turnover or gross receipts from all businesses shall be clubbed together. However, if the assessee is opting for the presumptive taxation scheme, the turnover of such businesses shall be excluded while determining his total sales turnover or gross receipts.
FAQ 7. Whether GST shall be included while calculating the gross turnover or receipt?
Ans. Section 145A provides for the inclusion of taxes, cess, etc. in the value of sale, purchase and inventory. However, the purpose of this provision is limited to the calculation of income taxable under the head ‘Profits and Gains from Business or Profession’. Whether this provision can be applied to calculate ‘sales turnover’ for Section 44AA, Section 44AB, Section 44AD, and Section 44ADA has always been a matter of disagreement between the revenue and taxpayer.
Where an assessee has opted for Composition Scheme under the GST Act, the tax is not recovered from the customer, and it is debited to the statement of profit & loss as an indirect expense. Thus, the amount of GST paid by an assessee does not form part of his gross turnover. In the case of other assessees, as GST is charged from the customer and it is recognised separately in the books of accounts, it is not clear whether the amount of GST shall be included in the turnover for calculation of taxable income only (as provided by Section 145A) or for every other provision which has a reference to ‘turnover’. Unless the CBDT clarifies its stand on this matter, it would be appropriate to ignore the amount of GST while calculating the gross turnover or gross receipts because of the following reasons:
- Section 145A begins with ‘for the purpose of determining the income chargeable under the head Profits and gains of business or profession’ which makes this provision inapplicable for other purposes.
- If GST recovered from the customer is credited to Current Liability Accounts (Output CGST or Output IGST or Output SGST) and payments to the authority are also debited to the said separate account, these should not form part of turnover shown in profit and loss account. ICAI’s Guidance Note on Tax Audit also confirms that if tax recovered is credited to a separate account, they would not be included in the turnover.
- Inclusion of GST in the turnover would have the cascading effect, as presumptive income would be computed on the component of GST which is never treated as income of the assessee.
 Circular No. 452 dated March 17, 1986
Disclaimer: The content/information published on the website is only for general information of the user and shall not be construed as legal advice. While the Taxmann has exercised reasonable efforts to ensure the veracity of information/content published, Taxmann shall be under no liability in any manner whatsoever for incorrect information, if any.
Taxmann Publications has a dedicated in-house Research & Editorial Team. This team consists of a team of Chartered Accountants, Company Secretaries, and Lawyers. This team works under the guidance and supervision of editor-in-chief Mr Rakesh Bhargava.
The Research and Editorial Team is responsible for developing reliable and accurate content for the readers. The team follows the six-sigma approach to achieve the benchmark of zero error in its publications and research platforms. The team ensures that the following publication guidelines are thoroughly followed while developing the content:
- The statutory material is obtained only from the authorized and reliable sources
- All the latest developments in the judicial and legislative fields are covered
- Prepare the analytical write-ups on current, controversial, and important issues to help the readers to understand the concept and its implications
- Every content published by Taxmann is complete, accurate and lucid
- All evidence-based statements are supported with proper reference to Section, Circular No., Notification No. or citations
- The golden rules of grammar, style and consistency are thoroughly followed
- Font and size that’s easy to read and remain consistent across all imprint and digital publications are applied